Table I Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients used for the validation studies. Serum creatinine levels and proteinuria/urine creatinine ratio: CKD controls: 1.85 ± 0.22 mg/dL and 2.73 ± 0.84; Healthy controls: 0.72 ± 0.15 mg/dL and 0.4 ± 0.11
No.100
Female, no. (%)86 (86)
Age, mean +/− S.E., years35.8 ± 1.1
Race, African American/Hispanic/Caucasian, no.45/42/13
SLEDAI, median (interquartile)10 (4–16)
Renal SLEDAI, median (interquartile)4 (4–8)
No. of patients with renal SLEDAI = 0 (%)20 (20)
Protein:creatinine ratio, mg/mg, mean +/− S.E.2.0 ± 0.3
Serum Cr, mg/dl, mean +/− S.E.1.5 ± 0.1
Comorbidities, no. (%)
    Diabetes Mellitus10 (10)
    Hypertension75 (75)
    Dyslipidemia58 (58)
    Cardiovascular disease13 (13)
    Anemia67 (67)
    Antiphospholipid syndrome2 (2)
    Venous thromboembolism8 (8)
    Others50 (50)
Current medications, no. (%)
    Prednisone71 (71)
    Mycophenolic acid36 (36)
    Cyclophosphamide7 (7)
    Azathioprine/MTX13 (13)
    Cyclosporine/Tacrolimus3 (3)
    Hydroxychloroquine47 (47)
    Angiotensin blocking agents49 (49)