Table I Selected representative biomarkers associated with differential prostate cancer subtypes. This table lists biomarkers that showed strong evidence as diagnostic and prognostic PCa biomarkers according to previous literature, with a focus on cancer aggressiveness and previous blood detection
Protein (human)UniProtProtein nameP value (ANOVA)Fold changePositive staining, % in PCaaSignalPTMHMMPCa markers detected in bloodb
Higher in AG/lower in NAG
    POSTNQ15063Periostin0.06851.590YNY
    ASPNQ9BXN1Asporin0.07541.4463YNY
    LAMB2P55268Laminin subunit β-20.00022.126YN
    SERPHP50454Serpin H10.00241.3839YN
    CSPG2P13611Versican core protein0.04432.2241YN
    ENTP1P49961Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 10.01021.9642NY
    SE1L1Q9UBV2Protein sel-1 homolog 10.03411.6750YY
    ITAVP06756Integrin α-V0.04351.5486YY
    FOLH1Q04609Glutamate carboxypeptidase 20.07086.3494NY
    STIM1Q13586Stromal interaction molecule 10.03771.2996YY
    PTK7Q13308Inactive tyrosine-protein kinase 70.00041.2100YY
    ICOSLO75144ICOS ligand0.00941.29100YY
    SPP2AQ8TCT8Signal peptide peptidase-like 2A0.0671.33100YY
    CD276Q5ZPR3CD276 antigen0.08881.68100YY
Higher in NAG/lower in AG
    KLK3P07288Prostate-specific antigen0.00321.3790YNY
    ZA2GP25311Zinc-α-2-glycoprotein0.00053.2395YNY
    FBN1P35555Fibrillin-10.00281.2813YN
    CD38P28907ADP-ribosyl cyclase 10.00032.5030NY
    CNTP2Q9UHC6Contactin-associated protein-like 20.00681.6142YY
    AMPNP15144Aminopeptidase N0.00172.7072NY
    FAM3BP58499Protein FAM3B0.02861.7272NY
    RNT2O00584Ribonuclease T20.01382.6389YN
    NAAAQ02083N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase0.0432.1391YY
    PPAPP15309Prostatic acid phosphatase0.00011.56100NY
    GSLG1Q92896Golgi apparatus protein 10.00421.27100YY
    TSN1O60635Tetraspanin-10.070710.00NANY
    DPP4P27487Dipeptidyl peptidase 40.01072.27NANY
    ST14Q9Y5Y6Suppressor of tumorigenicity 14 protein0.03841.64NANY
Higher in non-MET/lower in MET
    TIMP1P01033Metalloproteinase inhibitor 10.01012.7025YNY
    CLUSP10909Clusterin0.01842.0820YNY
    MFAP4P55083Microfibril-associated glycoprotein 40.06343.7030YNY
    AOC3Q16853Membrane primary amine oxidase03.4542NYY
    CADM1Q9BY67Cell adhesion molecule 10.0462.6360YYY
    HYOU1Q9Y4L1Hypoxia up-regulated protein 10.00191.859YYY
    FSTL1Q12841Follistatin-related protein 10.00632.5073YNY
    KLK11Q9UBX7Kallikrein-110.02948.3325NN
    NBL1P41271Neuroblastoma suppressor of tumorigenicity 10.02164.1770YN
    GOLM1Q8NBJ4Golgi membrane protein 10.00123.70100NY
Higher in MET/lower in non-MET
    VTNCP04004Vitronectin0.03241.85NAYNY
    CERUP00450Ceruloplasmin0.00082.5365YNY
    A1AG2P19652α-1-acid glycoprotein 20.03252.7850YN
    LYVE1Q9Y5Y7Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 10.0313.870YY
    A1AG1P02763α-1-acid glycoprotein 10.00048.6530YN
Higher in cancer/lower in normal
    ATRNO75882Attractin0.06831.28100NYY
    CATDP07339Cathepsin D0.01122.1954YNY
    BTDP43251Biotinidase0.02651.96NANNY
    MTA1Q13330Metastasis-associated protein MTA10.0134>1025NN
Higher in normal/lower in cancer
    NCAM1P13591Neural cell adhesion molecule 10.00012.170YYY
    PECA1P16284Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule0.06341.56NAYY
  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; MET, metastatic.

  • a The percentages of the positive antibody staining among PCa tissue specimens were manually compiled from Protein Atlas.

  • b The detection in blood for glycoproteins as PCa markers was based on Refs. 23 and 72.