Table II Clinical characteristics of the patient cohort for biomarker qualification. For categorical and numerical variables, p values were calculated using Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test respectively
VariablesHealthyBEEACp value (Healthy vs BE vs EAC)Population Controlp value (Healthy vs Pop. Control)
Sample size20202019
GenderAll maleAll maleAll maleAll male
Age in years (Median ± S.D.)64 ± 860 ± 861 ± 70.428362 ± 70.2793
Protein concentration (μg/μl)83 ± 1078 ± 1285 ± 130.648689 ± 130.0785
Reflux frequencya (10 years before diagnosis)0.01080.2155
    <Once/month9 (47.4%)7 (35.0%)2 (10.0%)14 (73.7%)
    Monthly (few times/month)6 (31.6%)6 (30.0%)3 (15.0%)4 (21.1%)
    Weekly or daily4 (21.0%)7 (35.0%)15 (75.0%)1 (5.3%)
Body mass index0.00760.6090
    Healthy (<25)5 (25.0%)5 (25.0%)1 (5.0%)7 (36.8%)
    Overweight (25–30)8 (40.0%)12 (60.0%)5 (25.0%)8 (42.1%)
    Obese (> = 30)7 (35.0%)3 (15.0%)14 (70.0%)4 (21.1%)
Smoking history0.61160.7813
    Never smoked8 (40.0%)8 (40.0%)4 (20.0%)7 (36.8%)
    1–29.9 pack per year8 (40.0%)9 (45.0%)10 (50.0%)6 (31.6%)
    30+ pack per year4 (20.0%)3 (15.0%)6 (30.0%)6 (31.6%)
Alcohol consumption0.66370.8379
    <1 standard drink/week3 (15.0%)3 (15.0%)1 (5.0%)2 (10.5%)
    1–6 standard drink/week3 (15.0%)4 (20.0%)6 (30.0%)5 (26.3%)
    7–20 standard drink/week8 (40.0%)4 (20.0%)6 (30.0%)6 (31.6%)
    21+ standard drink/week6 (30.0%)9 (45.0%)7 (35.0%)6 (31.6%)
  • a All the analyses were performed based on available patient information. Reflux frequency for one healthy patient was missing.