Table II Factors identified by univariate and multivariate analyses that affect overall survival (OS) in HCC patients treated with sorafenib
VariableTraining set (n = 65)Validation set (n = 50)
Univariate AnalysisMultivariate AnalysisUnivariate AnalysisMultivariate Analysis
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Age (≥ 60 years)1.211 (0.675–2.174)0.5211.184 (0.614–2.282)0.614
Male0.982 (0.387–2.490)0.9691.183 (0.418–3.348)0.752
Etiology0.5350.373
    HBV vs. NBNC1.033 (0.479–2.229)0.9330.458 (0.109–1.921)0.286
    HCV vs. NBNC0.332 (0.041–2.670)0.3001.553 (0.544–4.435)0.411
Child-Pugh score2.21 (1.390–3.514)0.0011.857 (1.156–2.982)0.0101.271 (0.989–1.633)0.0611.373 (1.016–1.855)0.039
AFP (ng/ml)
    ≥ 2001.516 (0.837–2.744)0.1700.866 (0.443–1.696)0.675
Log(DCP) (mAU/ml)1.178 (0.903–1.536)0.2281.542 (1.108–2.147)0.010
Sorafenib administration
    Dose modification during treatment1.041 (0.528–2.051)0.9081.653 (0.637–4.290)0.301
Duration of sorafenib treatment (weeks)0.0050.0130.477
    < 12 vs. > 244.109 (1.665–10.138)0.0024.063 (1.581–10.441)0.0041.816 (0.750–4.396)0.186
    12–18 vs. > 241.897 (0.688–5.232)0.2161.904 (0.656–5.528)0.2372.086 (0.773–5.629)0.147
    18–24 vs. > 241.411 (0.397–5.009)0.5951.774 (0.488–6.447)0.3841.347 (0.348–5.214)0.667
Tumor size (cm)
    ≥ 51.18 (0.548–2.539)0.6721.408 (0.640–3.099)0.395
Tumor number< 0.0010.0090.769
    4–9 vs. ≤ 31.27 (0.570–2.829)0.5881.566 (0.685–3.582)0.2881.161 (0.527–2.558)0.711
    ≥ 10 vs. ≤ 33.852 (1.930–7.688)<0.0013.129 (1.509–6.488)0.0021.372 (0.577–3.263)0.474
Vascular invasion
    Yes1.305 (0.674–2.528)0.4302.017 (1.030–3.948)0.0412.525 (1.198–5.324)0.015
Extrahepatic spread
    Yes1.176 (0.650–2.128)0.5911.092 (0.566–2.108)0.792
BCLC stage
    C0.933 (0.473–1.841)0.8420.571 (0.273–1.196)0.138
Triple-marker panel level
    Low (< 0.4)3.089 (1.506–6.339)0.0022.510 (1.144–5.507)0.0222.575 (1.221–5.431)0.0132.639 (1.216–5.730)0.014
  • HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; HBV, hepatitis B virus; NBNC, HBsAg-negative and anti-hepatitis C virus-negative; HCV, hepatitis C virus; AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; DCP, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin; BCLC, barcelona clinic liver cancer.