Table III Factors identified by univariate and multivariate analyses that affect time to progression (TTP) in HCC patients treated with sorafenib
VariableTraining set (n = 65)Validation set (n = 50)
Univariate AnalysisMultivariate AnalysisUnivariate AnalysisMultivariate Analysis
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Age (≥ 60 years)1.238 (0.743–2.064)0.4120.709 (0.381–1.322)0.280
Male0.460 (0.201–1.057)0.0670.909 (0.355–2.326)0.843
Etiology0.4980.694
    HBV vs. NBNC0.421 (0.098–1.802)0.2441.536 (0.540–4.370)0.422
    HCV vs. NBNC1.045 (0.537–2.032)0.8980.902 (0.317–2.564)0.847
Child-Pugh score1.108 (0.701–1.750)0.6600.963 (0.760–1.221)0.756
AFP (ng/ml)
    ≥ 2000.932 (0.536–1.620)0.8020.822 (0.444–1.521)0.532
Log(DCP) (mAU/ml)0.944 (0.761–1.172)0.6041.222 (0.899–1.661)0.201
Sorafenib administration
    Dose modification during treatment1.168 (0.650–2.098)0.6030.901 (0.353–2.302)0.828
Duration of sorafenib treatment (weeks)0.0010.0300.0350.179
    < 12 vs. > 244.993 (2.222–11.219)<0.0013.645 (1.537–8.645)0.0033.962 (1.554–10.105)0.0042.062 (0.735–5.788)0.169
    12–18 vs. > 242.555 (1.093–5.973)0.0302.147 (0.901–5.119)0.0852.693 (0.923–7.856)0.0701.446 (0.449–4.662)0.537
    18–24 vs. > 241.872 (0.691–5.071)0.2171.805 (0.666–4.893)0.2463.764 (1.024–13.841)0.0464.109 (1.057–15.972)0.041
Tumor size (cm)
    ≥ 50.597 (0.300–1.190)0.1430.885 (0.409–1.919)0.758
Tumor number0.3030.666
    4–9 vs. ≤ 31.296 (0.674–2.491)0.4371.293 (0.618–2.704)0.495
    ≥ 10 vs. ≤ 31.582 (0.877–2.854)0.1280.823 (0.337–2.011)0.669
Vascular invasion
    Yes0.921 (0.511–1.660)0.7841.022 (0.534–1.954)0.948
Extrahepatic spread
    Yes1.301 (0.778–2.176)0.3151.228 (0.672–2.244)0.503
BCLC stage
    C1.001 (0.557–1.797)0.9990.869 (0.450–1.680)0.677
Triple-marker panel level
    Low (< 0.4)2.749 (1.525–4.955)0.0012.631 (1.448–4.780)0.00219.322 (4.444–84.006)< 0.00118.399 (4.007–84.483)< 0.001
  • HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; HBV, hepatitis B virus; NBNC, HBsAg-negative and anti-hepatitis C virus-negative; HCV, hepatitis C virus; AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; DCP, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin; BCLC, barcelona clinic liver cancer.