Table I Base-line characteristics of the study population in the training, test and entire-data sets according to the clinical outcome of IC patients within two months after presentation
CharacteristicsNumber (%) of IC patients
Training set (n = 22)Test (validation) set (n = 23)Entire-data set (n = 45)
Good prognosis (n = 16)Poor prognosis (n = 6)a,bGood prognosis (n = 17)Poor prognosis (n = 6)a,bGood prognosis (n = 33)Poor prognosis (n = 12)b
Demographic factors
    Sex
        Male7 (43.8)5 (83.3)12 (70.6)4 (66.7)19 (57.6)9 (75.0)
        Female9 (56.3)1 (16.7)5 (29.4)2 (33.3)14 (42.4)3 (25.0)
    Age (years)
        ≤49 years3 (18.8)0 (0.0)5 (29.4)3 (50.0)8 (24.2)3 (25.0)
        50–69 years6 (37.5)4 (66.7)10 (58.8)2 (33.3)16 (48.5)6 (50.0)
        ≥70 years7 (43.8)2 (33.3)2 (11.8)1 (16.7)9 (27.3)3 (25.0)
Comorbiditiesc
    Malignancies
        Hematological malignancyd6 (37.5)1 (16.7)7 (41.2)2 (33.3)13 (39.4)3 (25.0)
        Solid tumore5 (31.3)3 (50.0)2 (11.8)1 (16.7)7 (21.2)4 (33.3)
    Nonmalignant diseases
        Respiratory dysfunctionf2 (12.5)1 (16.7)3 (17.6)2 (33.3)5 (15.2)3 (25.0)
        Gastrointestinal pathologyg1 (6.3)1 (16.7)4 (23.5)0 (0.0)5 (15.2)1 (8.3)
        Othersh2 (12.5)0 (0.0)1 (5.9)1 (16.7)3 (9.1)1 (8.3)
Risk factors for mortality in ICi
    Older age (>65 years)9 (56.3)3 (50.0)7 (41.2)2 (33.3)16 (48.5)5 (41.7)
    Leukocytosisj4 (25.0)3 (50.0)6 (35.3)3 (50.0)10 (30.3)6 (50.0)
    Presence or persistence of neutropeniak4 (25.0)2 (33.3)3 (17.6)1 (16.7)7 (21.2)3 (25.0)
    Underlying malignant condition11 (68.8)4 (66.7)9 (52.9)3 (50.0)20 (60.6)7 (58.3)
    Immunosuppressive therapyl5 (31.3)4 (66.7)3 (17.6)4 (66.7)m8 (24.2)8 (66.7)n
    Recent major surgeryo3 (18.8)3 (50.0)5 (29.4)2 (33.3)8 (24.2)5 (41.7)
    Hematopoietic transplantation2 (12.5)1 (16.7)1 (5.9)1 (16.7)3 (9.1)2 (16.7)
    Central venous catheters6 (37.5)2 (33.3)5 (29.4)2 (33.3)11 (33.3)4 (33.3)
    Intensive care unit stay2 (12.5)3 (50.0)4 (23.5)4 (66.7)6 (18.2)7 (58.3)n
    Multiple trauma0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (5.9)1 (16.7)1 (3.0)1 (8.3)
    Diabetes mellitusp2 (12.5)1 (16.7)1 (5.9)1 (16.7)3 (9.1)2 (16.7)
    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)p2 (12.5)2 (33.3)2 (11.8)2 (33.3)4 (12.1)4 (33.3)
    Acute renal failure1 (6.3)1 (16.7)1 (5.9)1 (16.7)2 (6.1)2 (16.7)
    Sepsis or septic shock at presentation1 (6.3)2 (33.3)3 (17.6)1 (16.7)4 (12.1)3 (25.0)
    Recent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics8 (50.0)4 (66.7)11 (64.7)6 (100.0)19 (57.6)10 (83.3)
    Pneumonia or other concomitant bacterial infection4 (25.0)2 (33.3)5 (29.4)3 (50.0)9 (27.3)5 (41.7)
    Causative Candida species
        C. albicans14 (87.5)4 (66.7)9 (52.9)q4 (66.7)23 (69.7)8 (66.7)
        Non-albicans Candida spp.2 (12.5)2 (33.3)8 (47.1)q2 (33.3)10 (30.3)4 (33.3)
    Inappropriate initial antifungal treatment2 (12.5)1 (16.7)1 (5.9)1 (16.7)3 (9.1)2 (16.7)
Hospital wards
    Intensive care unit2 (12.5)3 (50.0)4 (23.5)4 (66.7)6 (18.2)7 (58.3)n
    Hematology-oncology unit5 (31.3)1 (16.7)7 (41.2)1 (16.7)12 (36.4)2 (16.7)
    General medicine wards9 (56.3)2 (33.3)6 (35.3)1 (16.7)15 (45.5)3 (25.0)
  • a Training and test sets were balanced for mortality rate (see Experimental Procedures for further details).

  • b IC patients who died within two months of Candida isolation.

  • c Only the primary condition is shown.

  • d Includes the following diseases: leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplasia, and multiple myeloma.

  • e Includes the following diseases: bronchopulmonary neoplasm, pancreas/colon adenocarcinomas, and bladder neoplasm.

  • f Includes the following diseases: pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  • g Includes the following diseases: cholecystitis, angiocholitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, and hepatitis.

  • h Include the following diseases: multiple trauma, acute renal insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus.

  • i Main risk factors for hospital mortality in IC patients are shown (3, 5).

  • j Leukocytosis was defined as a white blood cell count above 11,000 cells/mm3.

  • k Neutropenia was defined as an absolute neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3.

  • l Includes systemic corticosteroids (≥7.5 mg prednisone per day or equivalent), immunosuppressive or cytotoxic drugs and/or total-body irradiation. All patients with systemic corticosteroid therapy received 1–3 mg prednisone per kilogram per day for >15 days.

  • m p < 0.05 for the comparison with the good-prognosis test group.

  • n p < 0.05 for the comparison with the good-prognosis entire-data group.

  • o Includes colectomy, duodenotomy, cholecystectomy, pancreatectomy, pulmonary lobotomy, and thoracotomy.

  • p Diabetes mellitus and ARDS were not the primary condition in most IC patients.

  • q A slight, but not statistically significant, difference (p = 0.06) was observed for the comparison with the good-prognosis training group.