Table III

Prospective ovarian cancer screening studies in the general population

StudyMain featuresScreening strategyaNo. screenedNo. of invasive epithelial ovarian cancers detectedbNo. of positive screensNo. of operations/ cancer detected
CA125 alone
    Einhorn et al. 1992 (30)Age >40 yearsSerum CA1255,55062 stage I175c29c
Multimodal approach: CA125 (level I screen), then USS (level II screen)
    Jacobs et al. 1993, 1996     (63, 64)Age >45 years (median 56) postmenopausalSerum CA125 TAS, if CA125↑22,000114 stage I413.7
    Jacobs et al. 1999 (66)Age >45 years (median 56) postmenopausalRCT Serum CA125 TAS/TVS, if CA125↑10,958 3 annual screens63 stage I294.8
    Grover et al. 1995 (69)Age >40 years (median 51) or with family history (3%)Serum CA125 TAS/TVS, if CA125↑2,55010 stage I1616
    Adonakis et al. 1996 (70)Age >45 years (mean 58)Serum CA125 TVS, if CA125↑2,0001 (1) 1 stage I1515
USS only approach: USS (level I screen), then repeat USS (level II screen)
    De Priest et al. 1997 (71); van Nagell et al. 2000     (32)Age >50 years and postmenopausal or >30 with family historyTVS annual screens; mean 4 screens/woman14,46911 (6) 5 stage I18016.3
    Sato et al. 2000 (45)Part of general screening programTVS TVS + markers at level II51,5502217 stage I32414.7
    Hayashi et al. 1999 (72)Age >50 yearsTVS23,4513 (3)258 d
    Tabor et al. 1994 (73)Aged 46–65 yearsTVS43509
    Campbell et al. 1989 (74)Age >45 years (mean 53) or with family history (4%)TAS 3 screens at 18 monthly intervals5,4792 (3) 2 stage I326163
    Millo et al. 1989 (75)Age >45 years or postmenopausal (mean 54)US (not specified)500011
    Goswamy et al. 1983 (76)Age 39–78 postmenopausalTAS1,08411 stage I
USS and CDI (level I screen)
    Kurjak et al. 1995 (77)Aged 40–71 years (mean 45)TVS and CDI5,01344 stage I389.5
    Vuento et al. 1995 (53)Aged 56–61 years (mean 59)TVS and CDI1,364(1)5
USS (level I) and other test (level II screen)
    Parkes et al. 1994 (55)Aged 50–64TVS then CDI if TVS positive2,95311 stage I15e15
    Holbert 1994 (46)Aged 30–89 years postmenopausalTVS then CA125 if TVS positive47811 stage I33f33
  • a RCT, randomized controlled trial; TAS, transabdominal ultrasound; TVS, transvaginal ultrasound.

  • b Primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancers. The borderline/granulosa tumors detected are shown in parentheses.

  • c Not all of these women underwent surgical investigation as the study design involved intensive surveillance rather than surgical intervention.

  • d Only 95 women consented to surgery, and there are no follow-up details on the remaining.

  • e 86 women had abnormal USS prior to CDI.

  • f Only 11 of these women underwent surgery.