Table I

Some established cancer biomarkers

BiomarkeraCancer typeb
α-Fetoprotein (AFP)Hepatoma; testicular cancer
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)Colon; breast; lung; pancreatic
PSAProstate
CA125Ovarian
CA15.3Breast
CA19.9Gastrointestinal
ImmunoglobulinsB cell dyscrasias
Chroriogonadotropin (hCG)Testicular cancer; trophoblastic tumors
Steroid hormone receptorsBreast
  • a All of these markers are used as aids in diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapy; steroid hormone receptors are used for predicting therapeutic response to antiestrogens.

  • b All markers measured in serum except steroid hormone receptors, which are measured in cancer tissues.