Table I

Clinical information on advanced breast cancer patients with (group I) and without leptomeningeal metastasis (group II) and control subjects (group III)

NA, not applicable.

CharacteristicsGroup IGroup IIGroup III
Number of patients414643
Age at lumbar puncture (mean ± S.D.)52 ± 1052 ± 1338 ± 21
Time from cancer diagnosis (months) (mean ± S.D.)62 ± 6569 ± 59
Time from LP to last follow-up or death (months) (mean ± S.D.)6 ± 1019 ± 19
Alive at last follow-up1 (3%)7 (16%)
Number of symptoms
    One symptom22 (54%)33 (73%)
    Two symptoms12 (29%)12 (27%)
    Three symptoms7 (17%)
Symptoms
    Central28 (68%)14 (31%)
    Cranial Nerve11 (27%)10 (22%)
    Raised intracranial pressure16 (39%)5 (11%)
    Radicular12 (29%)8 (18%)
    Other20 (44%)
CSF
    White cell count/μl (mean ± S.D.)21.2 ± 34.40.8 ± 0.8NA
    Increased white cell count (>4/μl)23 (56%)0 (0%)
    Positive cytology41 (100%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
    Protein concentration > norm institute35 (85%)14 (30%)0 (0%)
    Glucose (mm, mean ± S.D.)2.0 ± 1.33.8 ± 0.9NA
Imaging (MRI/CT)35/4a26
    Positive23 (56%)1 (2%)
    Negative12 (29%)22 (48%)
    Suggestive4 (10%)3 (7%)
    NA2 (5%)20 (43%)
  • a Two of four CT scans were positive for LM.