Table I

Examples of PTMs on proteins contributing to oncogenesis or being used in the context of a cancer biomarker

All proteins are subdivided by their subcellular localization as indicated to show principal compartments where various PTMs are found to occur.

Posttranslational modificationProtein localization
NuclearCytosolic, intracellular organellesPlasma membrane, secreted
PhosphorylationpRBs, p53, histones, HDACs, STAT-3PTEN, Akt, MAP kinases, death-associated protein kinase, cyclin-dependent kinasesEGFRs, PDGFR, Abl, ILK, osteopontin
GlycosylationGP73CD44; galectins; CA125, CA19-9; MUC1, MUC4, MUC16; prostate-specific antigen; osteopontin
Ubiquitination, sumoylationp53, NF-κB, histones, HDACsInhibitor of apoptosis proteins
PrenylationRas, Rho, BrafG-protein-coupled receptors
MethylationHistones, DNA polymerase β
Acetylationp53, GATA transcription factors, histones, HDACs, NF-κB