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April 2013

Volume 12Issue 4p833-1045
Open Access
On the cover: (Oil painting by Julie Newdoll, www.brushwithscience.com): A cell membrane constructed of the half human, half fish (both water loving and land creature) Oannes of Mesopotamian mythology divides the image into two worlds - that of the cytoplasm (black) below the outside the cell (red) above. In the cytoplasm reside the water creatures - species of fish and sea monster. They are glycosylated, if at all, with a single sugar GlcNAc, represented by the blue and white dragonfly (in the larvae stage in the water and as a dragonfly on the outside of the cell). Spanning the membrane are various characters from Greek mythology representing membrane proteins. They all hold or are attached to a straight or branched object, which represent straight or branched sugars. At the end of the chain of sugars is a purple bird, representing Neu5Ac. The objects in these glycans, like the bird, are colored to reflect the “Recommended symbols and conventions for drawing glycan structures” published in the Essentials of Glycobiology*. Hera (or Juno) holds her golden apple tree full of Gal, GalNac, and GalN. Cerberus sports a snake on each head, which might be a short chain of IdoA and GalA, all with the purple bird on the end of each branch (Neu5Ac), while the ram with the golden fleece has only a single GlcNAc, reflecting the possibility that proteins in the cytoplasm may be glycosylated in this way as shown recently in the literature. For details, see Essentials of Glycobiology, 2009, 2nd edition, Varki A, Cummings RD, J.D. Esko, et al., eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY....
On the cover: (Oil painting by Julie Newdoll, www.brushwithscience.com): A cell membrane constructed of the half human, half fish (both water loving and land creature) Oannes of Mesopotamian mythology divides the image into two worlds - that of the cytoplasm (black) below the outside the cell (red) above. In the cytoplasm reside the water creatures - species of fish and sea monster. They are glycosylated, if at all, with a single sugar GlcNAc, represented by the blue and white dragonfly (in the larvae stage in the water and as a dragonfly on the outside of the cell). Spanning the membrane are various characters from Greek mythology representing membrane proteins. They all hold or are attached to a straight or branched object, which represent straight or branched sugars. At the end of the chain of sugars is a purple bird, representing Neu5Ac. The objects in these glycans, like the bird, are colored to reflect the “Recommended symbols and conventions for drawing glycan structures” published in the Essentials of Glycobiology*. Hera (or Juno) holds her golden apple tree full of Gal, GalNac, and GalN. Cerberus sports a snake on each head, which might be a short chain of IdoA and GalA, all with the purple bird on the end of each branch (Neu5Ac), while the ram with the golden fleece has only a single GlcNAc, reflecting the possibility that proteins in the cytoplasm may be glycosylated in this way as shown recently in the literature. For details, see Essentials of Glycobiology, 2009, 2nd edition, Varki A, Cummings RD, J.D. Esko, et al., eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

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