- Research ArticleElevated plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent, causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp(a) is formed in or on hepatocytes from successive noncovalent and covalent interactions between apo(a) and apoB, although the subcellular location of these interactions and the nature of the apoB-containing particle involved remain unclear. Sortilin, encoded by the SORT1 gene, modulates apoB secretion and LDL clearance. We used a HepG2 cell model to study the secretion kinetics of apo(a) and apoB.
- Research ArticleLow levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with an elevated risk of arteriosclerotic coronary heart disease. Heritability of HDL-C levels is high. In this research discovery study, we used whole-exome sequencing to identify damaging gene variants that may play significant roles in determining HDL-C levels. We studied 204 individuals with a mean HDL-C level of 27.8 ± 6.4 mg/dl (range: 4–36 mg/dl). Data were analyzed by statistical gene burden testing and by filtering against candidate gene lists.
- Research ArticleVitamin A is distributed within the body to support chromophore synthesis in the eyes and retinoid signaling in most other tissues. Two pathways exist for the delivery of vitamin A: the extrinsic pathway transports dietary vitamin A in lipoproteins from intestinal enterocytes to tissues, while the intrinsic pathway distributes vitamin A from hepatic stores bound to serum retinol binding protein (RBP). Previously, the intestine-specific homeodomain transcription factor (ISX) and the RBP receptor STRA6 were identified as gatekeepers of these pathways; however, it is not clear how mutations in the corresponding genes affect retinoid homeostasis.
- Research ArticleDiverse molecular species of sulfatide with differences in FA lengths, unsaturation degrees, and hydroxylation statuses are expressed in the kidneys. However, the physiological functions of specific sulfatide species in the kidneys are unclear. Here, we evaluated the distribution of specific sulfatide species in the kidneys and their physiological functions. Electron microscopic analysis of kidneys of Cst-deficient mice lacking sulfatide showed vacuolar accumulation in the cytoplasm of intercalated cells in the collecting duct, whereas the proximal and distal tubules were unchanged.
- Research ArticleThe lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.